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When all executive power was conferred upon a Committee of Public Safety 6 April , Danton had been one of the nine original members of that body.
He was dispatched on frequent missions from the Convention to the republican armies in Belgium , and wherever he went he infused new energy into the army.
He pressed forward the new national system of education , and he was one of the legislative committee charged with the construction of a new system of government.
He tried and failed to bridge the hostilities between Girondists and Jacobins. The Girondists were irreconcilable, and the fury of their attacks on Danton and the Mountain was unremitting.
Although he was—again in the words of the Britannica —"far too robust in character to lose himself in merely personal enmities", by the middle of May Danton had made up his mind that the Girondists must be politically suppressed.
The Convention was wasting time and force in vindictive factional recriminations, while the country was in crisis. The French armies were suffering a series of checks and reverses.
A royalist rebellion was gaining formidable dimensions in the west. The Girondists were clamoring for the heads of Danton and his colleagues in the Mountain a name for the group of Jacobins in the General Assembly, stemming from their raised seats in the back of the hall , but they would lose this struggle to the death.
There is no positive evidence that Danton directly instigated the insurrection of 31 May — 2 June , which ended in the purge of the Convention and the proscription of the Girondists.
He afterwards spoke of himself as in some sense the author of this revolution, because a little while before, stung by some trait of factious perversity in the Girondists, he had openly cried out in the midst of the Convention, that if he could only find a hundred men, they would resist the oppressive authority of the Girondist Commission of Twelve.
At any rate, he certainly acquiesced in the violence of the commune , and he publicly gloried in the expulsion of the men who stood obstinately in the way of a vigorous and concentrated exertion of national power.
Danton, unlike the Girondists, "accepted the fury of popular passion as an inevitable incident in the work of deliverance. The authors of the Britannica see him at this time as wishing "to reconcile France with herself; to restore a society that, while emancipated and renewed in every part, should yet be stable; and above all to secure the independence of his country, both by a resolute defence against the invader, and by such a mixture of vigour with humanity as should reconcile the offended opinion of the rest of Europe.
The position of the Mountain had completely changed. In the Constituent Assembly, its members had been a mere 30 out of the of the third estate.
In the Legislative Assembly, they had not been numerous, and none of their chiefs held a seat. In the first nine months of the Convention, they were struggling for their very lives against the Girondists.
In June , for the first time, they found themselves in possession of absolute power. Men who had for many months been "nourished on the ideas and stirred to the methods of opposition" [ Britannica ] suddenly had the responsibility of government.
Both were chosen out of the body of the Convention. The drama of the nine months between the expulsion of the Girondins and the execution of Danton turns upon the struggle of the committees especially the former, which would gain ascendancy to retain power: Danton, immediately after the fall of the Girondins, had thrown himself with extraordinary energy into the work to be done.
He was prominent in the task of setting up a strong central authority, taming the anarchical ferment of Paris. It was he who proposed that the Committee of Public Safety be granted dictatorial powers and that it should have copious funds at its disposal.
He was not a member of the resulting committee: His position during the autumn of was that of a powerful supporter and inspirer from outside the government which he had been foremost in setting up.
The French National Convention during the autumn of began to assert its authority further throughout France, creating the bloodiest period of the French Revolution in which some historians assert approximately 40, people were killed in France.
While the Committee of Public Safety was concerned with strengthening the centralist policies of the Convention and its own grip over that body, Danton was in the process of devising a plan that would effectively move popular sentiment among delegates towards a more moderate stance.
Danton also proposed that the Convention begin taking actions towards peace with foreign powers, as the Committee had declared war on the majority of European powers, such as Britain, Spain, and Portugal.
The Reign of Terror was not a policy that could be easily transformed. Indeed, it would eventually end with the Thermidorian Reaction 27 July , when the Convention rose against the Committee, executed its leaders, and placed power in the hands of new men with a new policy.
But in Germinal —that is, in March —feeling was not ripe. The committees were still too strong to be overthrown, and Danton, heedless, instead of striking with vigor in the Convention, waited to be struck.
His wife had died during his absence on one of his expeditions to the armies; he had her body exhumed so as to see her again.
Ultimately, Danton himself would become a victim of the Terror. Toward the end of the Reign of Terror, Danton was accused of various financial misdeeds, as well as using his position within the Revolution for personal gain.
Between and , Danton faced many allegations, including taking bribes during the insurrection of August , helping his secretaries to line their pockets, and forging assignats during his mission to Belgium.
During his tenure on the Committee of Public Safety, Danton organized a peace treaty agreement with Sweden. Although the Swedish government never ratified the treaty, on 28 June the convention voted to pay 4 million livres to the Swedish Regent for diplomatic negotiations.
The most serious accusation, which haunted him during his arrest and formed a chief ground for his execution, was his alleged involvement with a scheme to appropriate the wealth of the French East India Company.
It was later revived in , backed by royal patronage. The Company was soon liquidated while certain members of the Convention tried to push through a decree that would cause the share prices to rise before the liquidation.
On 30 March , Danton, Desmoulins, and others of the indulgent party were suddenly arrested. Danton, Desmoulins, and many other actual or accused Dantonist associates were tried from 3—5 April before the Revolutionary Tribunal.
The trial was less criminal in nature than political, and as such unfolded in an irregular fashion. The jury had only seven members, despite the law demanding twelve, as it was deemed that only seven jurors could be relied on returning the required verdict.
Herman , was unable to control the proceedings until the aforementioned decree was passed by the National Convention, preventing the accused from further defending themselves.
Danton and the rest of the defendants were condemned to death, and at once led, in company with fourteen others, including Camille Desmoulins and several other members of the Indulgents , to the guillotine.
Robespierre will follow me; he is dragged down by me. Ah, better be a poor fisherman than meddle with the government of men! His influence and character during the French Revolution was, and still is, widely disputed among many historians, with the stretch of perspectives on him ranging from corrupt and violent to generous and patriotic.
One view of Danton, presented by historians like Thiers and Mignet ,  suggested he was "a gigantic revolutionary" with extravagant passions, a high level of intelligence, and a tolerance of violence for his goals.
Another perspective of Danton emerges from the work of Lamartine , who called Danton a man "devoid of honor, principles, and morality" who found only excitement and a chance for distinction during the French Revolution.
He was merely "a statesman of materialism" who was bought anew every day. Any revolutionary moments were staged for the prospect of glory and more wealth.
Another view of Danton is presented by Robinet, whose examination of Danton is more positive and portrays him as a figure worthy of admiration.
According to Robinet, Danton was a committed, loving, generous citizen, son, father, and husband. He remained loyal to his friends and the country of France by avoiding "personal ambition" and gave himself wholly to the cause of keeping "the government consolidated" for the Republic.
He always had a love for his country and the laboring masses, who he felt deserved "dignity, consolation, and happiness".
The Encyclopaedia Britannica wrote that Danton stands out as a master of commanding phrase. One of his fierce sayings has become a proverb.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Danton disambiguation. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Vegetarians should look away". Making a Difference With Every Bite: The Power of the Fork! Eishel, Gordon, et al.
Schwab, Denise, et al. Production Costs and Breakeven Market Prices, ". Iowa State University Scarborough, Peter, et al. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
Why going meatless is important". What You Need to Know in 12 Charts". Climactic Change July Food choice and Sustainability: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association: Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act".
There are many other factors to consider in terms of level of concern we should have regarding the role of food choice in climate change, global depletion in general, and certain applicable time lines as represented or misrepresented by the United Nations or any other governing or research institution.
There is little doubt why obvious omissions were therefore seen in their conclusions presented: This FAO report failed to represent urgency in regard to climate change and reductions of greenhouse gas emissions, performed no analysis of alternatives, and failed to present risks versus benefits of raising livestock on a global scale.
It is quite clear by this report, which presents a filtered and quite limited view of the role of livestock in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and global depletion, that our team should focus our attention on why there is suppression of information, lack of clarity, or elucidation of facts by our leaders related to the overarching problem of animal based agriculture as a component of food choice—and then how to swiftly correct this.
Global governmental institutions such as the United Nations and its FAO should examine all the facts and present them accordingly as they interrelate.
Approximately half of the ammonia rises as a gas and generally falls to forests, fields, or open water within 50 miles, either in rain or fog. The rest is transformed into dry particles that travel up to miles.
Ammonia is the most potent form of nitrogen that triggers algae blooms and causes fish kills in coastal waters. The North Carolina Division of Water Quality estimates that hog factories constitute the largest source of airborne ammonia in North Carolina, more than cattle, chickens, and turkeys combined.
A farm with dairy cattle is similar in waste load to a city of , people. On a pound live weight basis, each of these animals produces more waste than a human.
A CAFO with animal units of turkeys produces a waste load comparable to a city of 87, people. A dairy CAFO with animal units is equivalent to a city of , people.
The important difference lies in the fact that human waste is treated before discharge into the environment, but animal waste is either not treated at all or minimally treated by virtue of the storage methods used before disposal.
The average US vehicle gas tank can hold about 16 gallons of gas. Combination chicken and turkey is 7 kg per kg product X 4.
Hydroelectric power is one of the largest "users" of water in the US, but actually consumes very little water. The water is used to power turbines or for cooling and is almost always returned to the source immediately.
Agriculture is the largest "consumer" of water because it pulls water from the source and locks it up in products, not returning it to the source immediately, if ever.
Learn more by reading Meatonomics, by David Robinson Simon. According to the UNCCD United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification , nearly 20 million acres of arable land is lost each year due to desertification and the primary reasons are:.
Overgrazing by livestock is the principal land problem related to desertification as indicated in the article: This is an observation that spans all aspects of global depletion related to food choice, including the topic of loss of biodiversity and extinction of species.
The statement that animal agriculture is the primary driver of biodiversity loss and extinction of species is supported by many discussions and interviews with leading authors and scientists working for the Convention of Biodiversity and IUCN as well as publications regarding current biodiversity assessments as presented by Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, the IUCN Red List, and the Global Environmental and Biodiversity Outlook.
As of August , the Global Species Assessment was the most recent empirical data on global extinction rates, based on birds, mammals, and amphibians.
According to an interview conducted by Dr. One in every eight birds, one in every three amphibians, and one in every four mammals is facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the near future.
Overexploitation of wild animals for consumption remains a second major factor for extinction, such as can be seen in bushmeat trade in Africa and Southeast Asia and all hunting endeavors on land, globally.
The Alliance for Global Conservation estimates 36 percent of all species on our planet are in danger of extinction. The Convention on Biological Diversity, held in Nagoya, Japan, in October agreed that none of their goals from for lessening the rate of biodiversity loss were met.
The attendees confirmed that the main pressures for the rapid loss of species—habitat change, overexploitation, pollution, invasive species, and climate change—were all increasing in intensity.
Taking into consideration that 1lb of beef requires upwards of gallons of water to produce compared to only 25 gallons for 1lb of wheat, the water footprint of a person consuming a high meat diet could be x greater than that of a person consuming only plant foods.
The same applies for land and oil use. Facts Facts and Sources. Rome Environmental Protection Agency.
November Hyner, Christopher. New Methane is times more destructive than CO2 on a 20 year time frame. Methane has a global warming potential 86 times that of CO2 on a 20 year time frame.
New "Inventory of U. Reducing methane emissions would create tangible benefits almost immediately. February Geetanjali, Chauhan, et al.
Californians use gallons of water per person per day. Close to Half is associated with meat and dairy products. December 2, gallons of water are needed to produce 1 pound of beef.
New "Water Content of Things: Print gallons of water are required to produce 1lb. June 9, "Freshwater Depletion: November 25, "What is a dead zone?
June 13, "The Habitable Planet. Annenberg Learner "Impact of habitat loss on species". November 10, New Tilman, David, et al.
August New Wilcove, David S, et al. August 4, Zielinski, Sarah. June "Mass extinction of species has begun". February 23, Ceballos, Gerardo, et al.
March Oppenlander, Richard A. Nearly half of the contiguous US is devoted to animal agriculture. January The US lower 48 states represents 1.
December "Rearing cattle produces more greenhouse gases than driving cars, UN report warns". Part "Agricultural Waste Characteristics".
United Nations Environment Programme "General situation of world fish stocks". November 2, Montaigne, Fen.
July "Fish count estimates". March Goldenberg, Suzanne. Shark Savers "Sharks at Risk". Animal Welfare Institute Stone, Dan.
March, New Worm, Boris, et al. February New Bellantonio, Marisa, et al. Scientific American New Butler, Rhett. Rainforest Relief Reid, Walter V.
October "Tropical Deforestation". July New Veiga, J. January Butler, Rhett A. April Butler, Rhett A. December Sandy, Matt. October New Nuwer, Rachel.
Predator Defense Washington state killed the wedge pack of wolves. November Smil, Vaclav. April Friedrich, Bruce. September, Zuraw, Lydia.
Nova "Current World Population". More than 6 million animals are killed for food every hour. Compassion in World Farming "Animals Slaughtered". Worldwide, cows drink 45 billion gallons of water and eat billion pounds of food each day.
August, Cassidy, Emily S, et al. New "Meat and Animal Feed". August "Did you know? August "Improving Child Nutrition: April "Livestock production index".
The World Bank "Global livestock production systems". March "Kings of the Carnivores. April Barnard, M. Worldometers New "Visualizations of population growth".
Shrink That Footprint Scarborough, Peter, et al. April New "How much have you saved? August McWilliams, James F. According to the UNCCD United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification , nearly 20 million acres of arable land is lost each year due to desertification and the primary reasons are: